Kings Park and Botanic Garden covers approximately 400 hectares, including 267 hectares of significant remnant bushland.
The escarpment rises steeply from the Swan River to a height of 65 m and, as a high point in the landscape, is visible from the city foreshore and surrounding suburbs. Views from the escarpment overlook Perth city, the Swan River and Darling Scarp in the distance. Geologically it is within the Spearwood Dune System with soils of the Karrakatta Soil association.
Over time, leaching of the calcareous sands has led to the formation of limestone at greater depths. This is demonstrated by the limestone cliffs exposed above Mounts Bay Road. As a result of past weathering, Kings Park slopes from high areas in the south-east to low lying areas in the south-west. The limestone cliffs have been exposed as the Swan River receded, and are a significant landform of the bushland.
The soils can be divided into two main types: medium size, calcareous sands; and shallow sands with exposed limestone. Apart from sand varying in pH, degree of leaching and grain size, there are areas of sandy loams. The underlying sand loam sheets, with perched water tables (for some months of the year) are important as they coincide with more vigorous vegetation cover.